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- Ed’s Heating Air Conditioning & Commercial Refrigeration
- Adam’s Aerosol Air Freshener
- Ksb Etaline Etl 125 125 200 200l Технические данные онлайн [81/90]
- Is Air Conditioning Safe During The Pandemic?
- Konzept Der Hlkgeräte Luftbefeuchter Conditioner Reiniger Kühlung Gastankwassererhitzer Lüfter Dünne Linie Symbole Gesetzt Heizung Lüftung Klimalineare Vektorillustrationen Stock Vektor Art Und Mehr Bilder Von Heizkörper
Ed’s Heating Air Conditioning & Commercial Refrigeration
Feature papers represent cutting-edge research with great potential for significant impact in the field. Feature works are submitted by invitation or individual recommendation from scientific editors and are subject to peer review before publication.
Adam’s Aerosol Air Freshener
The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantive new research study, often incorporating multiple methods or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with a concise and detailed update on advances from recently in the field that systematically reviews as the most exciting advance in science. literature. This type of paper provides insight into future research directions or potential applications.
Editor’s Choice articles are based on the recommendations of scientific editors of journals around the world. The editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be of particular interest to readers or will be important in the relevant research area. The aim is to provide an overview of some of the most interesting work published in the various research areas of the journal.
Simone Buffa 1, *, Mohammad Hossein Fuladfar 1, 2, Giuseppe Francini 2, Ismael Lozano Gabare 3 and Manuel Andres Cicot 3
Ksb Etaline Etl 125 125 200 200l Технические данные онлайн [81/90]
Received: 17 November 2020 / Revised: 18 December 2020 / Accepted: 22 December 2020 / Published: 5 January 2021
Peak trimming, demand response, fast fault finding, emissions and cost reduction are some of the main objectives to be achieved in advanced district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. To improve infrastructure operations, challenges such as supply temperature reduction and load uncertainty are increasing with the development of algorithms and technologies. Therefore, traditional control strategies and monitoring methods cannot achieve these goals. Therefore, to overcome these problems, researchers have developed many innovative methods based on their applications and properties. The main purpose of this paper is to review recent publications involving both hard and soft computing implementations, such as model predictive control and machine learning algorithms, in heating and cooling networks area in the fourth and fifth generations. After introducing the traditional methods, the innovative methods, the results achieved and an overview of the main strengths and weaknesses will be discussed with a description of the main capabilities of some trading platforms.
The world’s level of urbanization is expected to rise from around 55% in 2018 to 68% in 2050, and 90% of this increase is expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where around 90% of the world’s rural population lives. 2018 . In Europe today, 74% of the population already lives in urban areas, and this percentage is expected to increase to 84% by 2050 . Furthermore, in urban areas, where heating and cooling demand shows the highest concentration and the greatest load uniformity, a large amount of heat is wasted at a low level. In addition, for historical reasons, cities and towns were born along rivers, lakes and coasts, which are all sources of environmental heat, and the practice is very repetitive, because it has to get it exactly where it is needed. Even in some cases, such as London , the total waste heat from secondary sources is estimated to exceed the total heat demand of the city.
Is Air Conditioning Safe During The Pandemic?
Between 1950 and 2014, six of the ten major European heat waves occurred in the last 20 years . Extreme weather events such as wind storms and floods have increased in number and severity worldwide . Some scientists argue that there are several similarities in the evolution and consequences of climate change with the current pandemic crisis of COVID-19, but in slow motion [5, 6]. However, in recent years, several government institutions have recognized the climate crisis and are preparing to implement major actions to reduce the effects of global warming. As a result, 2019 was set as the year in which a “climate crisis” was declared. In this context, the European Union, which has already shown in the period 1990-2018 that it is possible to separate the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) from greenhouse gas emissions , set an objective very ambitious to achieve carbon neutrality. by 2050.
Furthermore, the EU has admitted that this cannot be achieved with the current commitments under the Paris Agreement, which provides for an overall reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 40% in 2030 compared to 1990 levels. To boost the process of combating global warming, the new European Green Deal  set a more ambitious target, according to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50 % by 2030 compared to the levels of 1990. with specific strategies for different sectors. In particular, to decarbonize the heating and cooling sector and improve air quality in urban areas, the European Green Deal investment program will support the use of district heating and cooling (DHC) networks . This technology is very promising for applying circular economy principles in the thermal sector, collecting and distributing local excess heat that would otherwise be wasted. In addition, it will allow increasing the share of renewable energy today to address the heat demand of buildings, which was only 13.6% worldwide in 2017 .
The Digital Roadmap for District Heating and Cooling (2019) , developed as part of the H2020 STORM project , carefully presents how digitization and the concept of Industry4.0 can improve efficiency and improve the operation of DHC. networks, strengthening their role in an integrated smart energy system. The mentioned obstacles that could hinder the implementation of digital technologies in DHC are not technical, but are mainly related to operational limitations of the substation construction, lack of business models or dynamic tariffs to flexibility that could be provided by private properties and promote regulations. data protection. This study, carried out in the context of the H2020 REWARDHeat project , aims to review the state of scientific publications and create common knowledge from two parts of different European research projects that are fundamental for achieve innovation. and stable DHC systems in the near future with advanced control strategies and fault detection and monitoring solutions. They are presented in Section 2 and Section 3, respectively, focusing on new applications of fifth generation DHC (5GDHC) systems that are not available in previous works such as  and . Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches discussed are discussed in Section 4.
Konzept Der Hlkgeräte Luftbefeuchter Conditioner Reiniger Kühlung Gastankwassererhitzer Lüfter Dünne Linie Symbole Gesetzt Heizung Lüftung Klimalineare Vektorillustrationen Stock Vektor Art Und Mehr Bilder Von Heizkörper
DH / DC networks include several subsystems from heat / cold generation units, distribution pipes and consumer substations. In recent decades, although renewable energy sources such as solar and wind have made significant progress in terms of electricity generation, the same has not been true for renewable heat generation. Even though the technology is mature, only a few countries such as Denmark, Sweden and Lithuania  have achieved a good share of renewable thermal energy generation in DH/DC systems due to the hydrocarbon policies their ambitious. However, it is worth noting that DHC is the main solution for expanding renewable thermal energy in the built environment. On the one hand, thanks to the economy of scale, and on the other hand, to solve issues that are relevant at the level of the building, such as the lack of space or the preservation of architectural heritage. In Europe, DH covers about 12% of the heating market share  and DC only 2% of the cooling market share . Globally, regional energy systems provide only 6% of the demand for thermal energy and it is based on fossil fuels. In fact, in 2018, only 8% of the energy sources used in DHC were based on renewable sources, with 95% of that coming from biomass, according to . This high share confirms that biomass is the most competitive renewable energy source in several countries’ DHC systems. In addition, it is easy to implement, since the control of a cogeneration plant is very similar to traditional plant control based on fossils. Biomass boilers can come from retrofitting existing coal-fired plants and, in some cases, combined with steam-based combined heat and power or Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) (CHP) systems. .
The years 2020 to 2030 have been defined as the “Geothermal Decade” , as a significant increase in the use of geothermal energy is expected in Europe, both for electricity generation and direct/indirect use. direct. Even though the location of high-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs is geographically limited, medium-enthalpy resources are more widespread. For direct use in DH, deep geothermal energy can meet the heating demand of around 25% of the European population, according to the results of the GeoDH research project . In this sense, Iceland
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