There are two types of air conditioning systems commonly used in airplanes. Air-cycle air conditioning is used in many turbine-powered aircraft. It uses engine exhaust air or APU air during transfer. Steam cycle air conditioning systems are commonly used on retro-engined aircraft. This type of system is similar to the one found in homes and cars. Note that some turbine-powered aircraft also use air circulation.
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Air Cycle Air ConditioningAir cycle Air conditioning prepares injection air from the engine to pressurize the cabin. Temperature and ventilation must be properly controlled to maintain a comfortable cabin environment on the upper and lower decks. Air circulation systems are often referred to as packages or air packages. It is usually located in the lower half of the fuselage or tail of turbine-powered aircraft. [Image on page 1]
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Figure 1. Boeing 737 aircraft system. A photograph is taken of the air ducts located under the fuselage on each side of the aircraft.
System Performance Despite maximum cooling capacity, bleed air is too hot to be used indoors without cooling. They are sent through the air circulation system and pass through a heater where the ram air cools the exhaust air. This cooling air enters the air circulation system. There, it is compressed before passing through a second heat exchanger that further cools the air and reservoir air. The bleed air returns to the air circulation system where it overheats the engine and cools it. Then the water is removed and the air is mixed with the blood air for the final change. It is sent to the cabin through the air distribution system.
By looking at the performance of each airflow component, one can better understand how the airflow is designed for use in the cabin. See Figure 2, which shows the Boeing 737 air system.
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Supply of Pneumatic System The pneumatic system of the air cycle is supplied by the air conditioning system. As a result, the pneumatic system is supplied with bleed air for each engine section or from the APU pneumatic supply. An external source of exhaust gas can also be connected while the aircraft is on the ground. In air travel systems, the pneumatic manifold is supplied with blood air using valves, controls and ducts. Air conditioning packages are available with these upgrades, as are other important air conditioning systems, such as anti-ice and hydraulic pressure systems.
The OperationPack Valve unit is a valve that directs the exhaust air from the pneumatic manifold to the air conditioning system. It is controlled by a switch from the air conditioning control panel in the cockpit. Most package valves are electrically actuated and pneumatically actuated. Also known as a valve shut-off valve, a valve opens, closes, and adjusts to provide ambient air with a fixed volume of warm, pressurized air. [Image on page 3] When high temperatures or other unusual conditions require the air conditioning package to be shut off, a signal is sent to the package valve to close.
Figure 3. The valve diagram of this package shows the valve combinations, which open, close and modulate. It is manually controlled from the cockpit and responds only to input and ambient air
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Bleed air bypass A method of bypassing some of the pneumatic air supplied to the surrounding air conditioning system on all aircraft. The hot air passing through must be mixed with the cold air produced by the air conditioning system in order to properly heat the air supplied to the cabin. It also controls the airflow and the air to be cooled to meet the needs of the vehicle’s temperature controller. It can also be controlled manually by selecting the cabin temperature in manual mode. Some air circulation systems may have a valve that directs air around the cooling air, such as a temperature control valve, an air control valve, or the like.
Primary Heat Exchanger Normally, the hot air supplied to the air circulation system passes through the primary heat exchanger. It works like a radiator in a car. The controlled flow of male air is controlled through the medium, which reduces the temperature of the air inside the system. [Image on page 4] When the plane is on the ground, the fan draws air through the air duct of the berm to keep the plane stationary. In flight, the air intakes are controlled to increase or decrease the airflow to the vane depending on the position of the wing flaps. In slow flight, the doors open when the flaps are extended. At high speed, with the return valves, the doors move to the closed position to reduce the amount of air flow to the alternator. A similar function is achieved with a valve on small planes. [Image on page 5]
Figure 4. Primary and secondary boilers in an air circulation system with similar structure. All of these cool the exhaust air while the ram air passes through the diaphragm exchanger
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Figure 5. The air port of the berm directs the air flow through the primary and secondary valves.
Refrigeration turbine unit or air circulation machine and secondary heat exchanger The heart of the air conditioning system is the refrigeration turbine unit, also known as the air circulation machine (ACM). It consists of a compressor driven by a turbine on a common shaft. System air flows from the primary burner to the ACM compressor side. As air is compressed, its temperature increases. It is then sent to a secondary heater, similar to the primary heater located in the berm air duct. The high temperature of the ACM compressed air facilitates the easy transfer of heat energy to the male air. Cool air, still under constant airflow pressure from the ACM compressor, exits the secondary heat exchanger. It is routed to the turbine side of the ACM. The rotating side of the ACM turbine extracts more energy from the air as it passes through and drives the turbine. After passing through, the air is allowed to flow through the ACM outlet, cooling. The combined energy loss from the atmosphere first drives the power plant and then increases in the plant reducing the air temperature to freezing. [Image on page 6]
Figure 6. Cutaway view of the air circulation system. The main housing supports a single shaft to which the compressor and turbine are attached. The oil lubricates and cools the movement of the shaft
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Water Separation The cold air in the air circulation system can no longer hold the amount of water it could have heated. Dewatering is used to remove water from saturated air before it is sent to the aircraft cabin. The unit works without moving parts. The mist air from the ACM enters and passes through a fiberglass tube where the mist settles and coalesces into large water droplets. The internal structure of the separator allows air and water to flow. Water collects on the sides of the separator and drains down and out of the unit, while the dry air passes through. The bypass valve is included as a cut-off. [Image on page 7]
Figure 7. Water separation by driving the air/water mixture from the ACM expansion turbine, compresses and expels the water. Centrifugal force sends the water to the walls of the collector as it exits the unit
As mentioned, the air coming out of the ACM turbine expands and cools. If it is too cold, it can freeze the water in the water separator, thus preventing or blocking the air flow. A temperature sensor in the separator controls a refrigerant vent valve designed to allow air to pass through the water separator at temperatures above freezing. The valve is also known as temperature control valve, 35° valve, anti-ice valve.
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